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Vermont Botanical and 

Bird Clubs 

APRIL, 1921 

Published Annually by the Clubs 

MAY 9 1921 


Vermont Botanical and 

Bird Clubs 

APRIL, 1921 

Published Annually by the Clubs 


Joint Bulletin No. 7 April, 1921 

Published Annually by the Clubs 



Joint Officers 3 

Committee on Summer Meeting 3 

Editorial — 

The Need of a Botanical Garden in Vermont 5 

Secretary's Report, Nellie F. Flynn 6 

Treasurer's Report, Nellie F. Flynn 8 

Field Meeting of 1920. Nellie F. Flynn 9 

My Botanical Work in 1920, Inez Addie Howe 11 

Result of Finding an Unknown Cocoon, Evaline Darling Morgan.. 12 

New Plants and New Stations, E. M. Kittredge 14 

Botanizing in Essex County, Dana S. Carpenter 15 

Violets Collected at Tyson, Ezra Brainerd 18 

New Plants for State, Nellie F. Flynn 19 

A Season's Botanizing in Bennington, H. C. Ridlon -. . 19 

Nest of Mourning Warbler, George L. Kirk 21 

Bird Notes, Inez Addie Howe 22 

Rare Plants of Wells River and Vicinity, Helen Eastman and 

W T endell P. Smith 23 

Collections in Woodstock in 1920, E. M. Kittredge 24 

Similarity in Nests of Bicknell's Thrush, George L. Kirk 25 

Notes 27 

Constitutions of Clubs 30 

Members Elected During Year — 

Botanical Club 31 

Bird Club 32 


President Dr. Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury 

Vice-President Prof. G. H. Perkins, Burlington 

Secretary-Treasurer Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington 

Librarian Lewis H. Flint, Burlington 

Editor George L. Kirk, Rutland 


Mrs. L. Frances Jolley, Berkshire 
Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Burlington 
Jay G. Underwood, Hartland 
Miss Inez Addie Howe, St. Johnsbury 


The following was submitted by Miss E. M. Kittredge for another 
department of the Bulletin, but the idea covered is so important to 
all lovers of Vermont's flora, and so timely, that we have appropriated 
it for this column: 

The Need of a Botanical Garden in Vermont 

Some of the rarest of our plants are occasionally found growing in 
places soon to be invaded by woodsmen, or roadmakers, or along road- 
sides which must be cut, or in fields which are to be cultivated. 
Herbarium specimens, of course, are taken, but the real lover of plants 
regrets the loss of the growing plant. If possessed of a garden of his 
own, or having access to the gardens of friends, the plant is removed 
from its jeopardized home and given a home where it is guarded, and 
its grace and beauty enjoyed. But those of us who are not fortunate 
in the matter of gardens of our own or our friends, must leave the 
lovely, or odd, things we find to be destroyed by "the march of prog- 
ress." Therefore arises the need of a reservation in the Experiment 
Station, or some other advantageous place, where such plants can find 
sanctuary, and not only afford opportunities for study to the serious 
botanist, but delight the eyes, and awaken the interest of the casual 

The writer firmly believes in leaving most plants where Nature 
has placed them, but when it is evident that certain plants, interesting 
for one reason or another, are doomed to destruction if left, then she 
as firmly believes in removing them to some other situation, where 
they will be able to grow — and perhaps multiply. During four years in 
this State the writer has found many such plants which would soon 
be destroyed, and which she would gladly have sent to the State 
Botanical Garden, had there been one. Doubtless, other members of 
this Club have had similar experiences. The Club has done much to 
preserve a record of the State's flora in the Herbarium. Will it not 
now provide, or urge the provision of, a home for living plants? 

The committee appointed at the last summer meeting of the Clubs 
to draft a petition to the State Legislature, asking that a law be passed 
to protect the wild flowers of Vermont, lost no time in getting to work. 


The result was that consideration was given by the General Assembly 
of 1921 to a measure to prohibit the extinction of stations of rare plants 
for commercial, or for other purposes. Because of the accessibility of 
Vermont's favorite botanizing centers, due to modern means of travel, 
a law of this kind is the only means of preventing total disappearance 
of some of the rarest plants from the State's flora. 

We are glad to again welcome to the Bulletin an article which 
does not come under the head of either plant or bird study. It has 
been pointed out before that the Bulletin offers a medium for the 
discussion of all phases of natural history of Vermont. Botanists and 
ornithologists predominate in this State, but there are many who would 
be interested in articles on the insects, reptiles and mammals. The 
fungi have been much neglected during recent years. 


Xellie F. Flynn 

Business Meetings of the Year 

The 1920 summer meeting, at Tyson, was called to order by the 
president, Dr. Ezra Brainerd. Ex-Gov. W. W. Stickney, of Ludlow, ad- 
dressed the Clubs on the history of the region and the old post road, 
which, in 1759, was built from Charleston, N. H., to Crown Point, N. Y., 
under General Amherst. Mrs. W. H. Moore, of Woodstock, followed 
with a delightful talk on the birds of the Black River Valley and she 
whistled some of their songs. Several new members were elected. 

Members were notified to report promptly all new finds of plants 
to Dr. George P. Burns, and to send duplicates to the State Herbarium. 
Dr. A. J. Grout presented the matter of protecting the plants in 
Smuggler's Notch, which is being denuded of ferns by the Gillette 
Nursery Company of Southworth, N. J. He said that Goldie's fern 
was gone, and a few others were about extinct. He suggested that the 
president appoint a committee to draft a petition to the Legislature 
or suggest other means to protect these wild plants. The chair named 
Dr. Burns, Prof. G. H. Perkins, and Professor Grout as the committee. 
Plans for the three days of the meeting were then talked over. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 7 

Winter Meeting— 1921 

The meeting was called to order, January 28, at Burlington, 
by Dana S. Carpenter, of Middletown Springs, in the absence of the 
president and vice-president. The reading of papers was proceeded 
with as per program, and these, with discussions, occupied the morning. 
At the afternoon session, in addition to the papers, the place for the 
next summer meeting was discussed, and Willoughby was decided upon, 
providing the Clubs can get accommodations there. Mrs. L. Frances 
Jolley, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn, Jay G. Underwood, and Miss Inez A. Howe 
were appointed a committee to look into the matter. 

A supper, complimentary to visiting members, was served at 6 

In the evening, a public lecture on "The Archaeology of Vermont" 
was given by Prof. G. H. Perkins, State Geologist. It was illustrated 
with stone implements of the Indians, which have been collected in 
various places in the State. 

At the session Saturday morning, the old officers were elected, as 
follows: President, Dr. Ezra Brainerd, Middlebury; vice-president, 
Prof. G. H. Perkins, Burlington; secretary-treasurer, Mrs. Nellie F. 
Flynn, Burlington; librarian, Lewis H. Flint, Burlington; editor, 
George L. Kirk, Rutland. 

The treasurer's report was accepted and filed. The secretary was 
instructed to draft a letter to members of the Legislature, asking for 
legislation prohibiting the gathering of wild flowers and plants for 
commercial purposes on Mount Mansfield and Smuggler's Notch. 

It was voted to join the Wild Flowers Preservation Society, and 
the treasurer was instructed to send dues of $1, and express the interest 
of the Vermont Club in the work. 

It was decided to revise the Flora of Vermont, and a committee, 
consisting of Miss Elsie M. Kittredge, of Proctor and New York, Dr. 
Brainerd, Mrs. Flynn, and Professor Burns, was appointed to that end. 

There was election of new members. 

Five films of moving pictures were thrown on the screen showing 
one of the National forests, means provided for camping, the results 
of carelessness in fires from cigar and cigarette butts, and apparatus 
for fighting fire. 

8 Joint Bulletin 7 


Xellic F. Flynn 

Botanical Club 


Cash on hand, January 29. 1920 $218.85 

Dues Go. 75 

Sale of Club pins 2.10 

Sale of Bulletins 90 

Total $287.00 


Half bill for printing Bulletin 6 $ 59.15 

Half bills for programs and notices 11. S8 

Half bill typewriting Bulletin G 2.50 

Postage 12.19 

Stationery 1.95 

Half dues N. E. F. of N.'H. S 1.50 

Refunded, error 90 

Total $ 90.07 

Cash on hand, January 27, 1921 197. 53 

Balance $287.60 

Life membership fund $150.00 

Accrued interest 41.13 

Total $191.13 

Bird Club 


Cash on hand, January 29, 1920 $ 72.71 

Dues 52.50 

Sale of Bulletins SO 

Total $126.01 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 9 

exi enditl'res 

Half bill for printing Bulletin 6 $ 59.15 

Half bill programs and notices 11.87 

Half bill typewriting Bulletin 6 2.50 

Dues Nat. Assoc. Audobon Socs. (two years) 10. CO 

Postage 5.19 

Half dues N. E. F. of N. H. S 1.50 

Stationery 1.95 

Total $92.16 

Cash on hand, January 27, 1921 33.85 

Balance $12G.01 

Life membership fund $ 30.00 

Accrued interest 10.72 

Total $ 40.72 


Xellie F. FJynn 

The annual field meeting of the Clubs was held at Tyson, July 1 
to 3, with headquarters at Echo Lake Hotel, where the members gath- 
ered the afternoon and evening of June 30. In the evening, an in- 
formal session was held, with talks by Ex-Gov. W. W. Stickney and 
Mrs. W. H. Moore. 

On Thursday morning, July 1, the party went to the head of the 
reservoir on the West Bridgewater road, stopping on the way at an 
old limestone quarry, where the white flowered form of herb Robert, 
Geranium Robertianum. was found. In rich, moist woods near by grew, 
in great luxuriance, Braun's holy fern, Polystichum Braunii, Goldie's 
fern, Aspiflium Goldianum. narrow-leaved spleenwort, Asplenium an- 
gustifolium, and plenty of common kinds, like the lady fern, maiden 
hair, spinulose fern, but in more than ordinary luxuriance. 

In wet places, we found the swamp saxifrage, Saxifraga pennsyl- 
vanica. and Robbin's ragwort, Senecio RobMnsii. 

10 Joint Billet in 7 

On shaded limestone ledges on the north side of a mountain, at 
what is called "the narrows" and which is the watershed between a 
branch of the Black and a branch of the Ottaquechee Rivers, at an 
elevation of 1,395 feet, we found the most prized plant of the day, the 
green spleenwort, Asplenia m viride. This is the fourth station in the 
State, and the lowest in elevation. To this elevation the smaller size 
of the fern is said to be due. Maiden hair spleenwort, Asplenium 
trichomanes. was growing with the green spleenwort. On the return, 
the garden of the Misses Gibson, on the shore of one of the many lakes, 
was visited. 

Friday the Clubs went into Plymouth Notch, to Grassy Pond, 
stopping on the way to see the birthplace of Vice-President Calvin 

At the pond were found the usual plants of a sphagnum bog: The 
leatherleaf, Charnaeriaphne calyculata; swamp and sheep laurels, 
Kalmia polifolia and K. angustifolia; swamp sedges, Carex oederi var. 
pumila. C. Leptalea. C. rostrata. C. filiformis. Scirpus hudsonianus. and 
an immature sedge which may prove to be something new, if we can 
get it at maturity. 

The orchids, Habenarm dilatata, rose pogonia, Pogonia ophioglos- 
soides. and the rare Arethusa bulbosa were collected, but no grass 
pink, Calopogon pulchellus. were found. 

In shallow water, in an opening in the sphagnum, was found a 
new plant for Vermont, the smaller bladderwort, Utricularia minor. 
discovered by the sharp eyes of Harold G. Rugg, of Proctorsville. On 
the way back, the bulbous buttercup, Ranunculus bulbosus. and the 
lovage, Levisticum officinale, were collected by the roadside. 

Along the post road, a small, delicate form of the Indian poke, 
Yeratrum viride. with yellow flowers was found. It grew in a dryer 
situation than usual, and that probably accounts for the difference in 
appearance from the usual form. 

A few of the party found the new dock, Rumex alpinus. near the 
hotel. Miss Kittredge tells of this in one of her papers. 

Saturday, which had been reserved for trips to swamps and ponds 
within walking distance of the hotel, was so rainy that the party 
broke up. 

It seems advisable to visit this region again and to explore the 
swamps and ponds left unvisited on this trip. It is the only consider- 
able limestone region in Vermont, east of the Green Mountains, and 
contains many possibilities. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs ]1 

Thirty-four members were present at the 1920 summer meeting, 
for longer or shorter periods, and the usual fun and jollity prevailed, 
with great interest in bird and botanical findings. 

The birds seen were: Field sparrow, Nashville warbler, hairy wood- 
pecker, black throated blue warbler, veery, goldfinch, robin, swift, 
ovenbird, redstart, yellow warbler, wood pewee, kingbird red-eyed 
vireo, yellow-throated vireo, warbling vireo, song sparrow, chipping 
sparrow, catbird, cedarbird, red-winged blackbird, Canadian warbler, 
humming bird, purple finch, bobolink, whippoorwill, Maryland yellow 
throat, crow, blackduck, olive-sided flycatcher, alder flycatcher, swamp 
sparrow, bank swallow, vesper sparrow, olive-backed thrush, partridge, 
blue-headed vireo, great-crested flycatcher, winter wren, bluejay, night- 
hawk, kingfisher — 42 in all. Nests of chebec, ovenbird, barn swallow, 
phoebe, and kingbird were seen. 


Inez Ad die Howe 

During the season of 1920, the usual plan of work was carried on 
by the Botanical department of the Fairbanks Museum in St. Johns- 
bury. Within a radius of five miles of the Museum, general botanizing 
is done in familiar localities, and intensive work over small additional 
areas each year, with the hope that eventually we may have the com- 
plete Flora of St. Johnsbury and vicinity. 

As a result of last season's work 20 species were added to our 
local list. They are as follows: Aster lateriflorus var. hirsuticaulis, 
Hieracium floribundum, Centaurea americana. Vaccinium pennsylvani- 
cum. Pyrola asarifolia var. incarnata, Microstylis monophyllos. Galium 

of this list, two species, Solatium nigrum var. villosum, and Gen- 
hirsuta. Arenaria serpyllifolia. Stellaria borealis. Polemonium Van- 
Bruntiae. Arrhenatherum elatius. Panicum miliaceum, Poa triflora. 
Garex pennsylvanicitm, Garex pauciflora. Garex paupercula var. pallens. 
and Garex paupercula var. irrigua. 

Of this list, two species, Solanum nigrum var. villosum. and Gen- 
taurea americana are new to Vermont. 

A small station for Microstylis monophyllos in the same swamp 
where I have previously located 13 other species of Orchidaceae. was, 
perhaps, my best new find for the local Flora. In August, I located a 

12 Joint Bili.kti.x 7 

new station for Cypripedium arietinum in a section of the town where 
it has never been found before, and I am convinced that Habcnaria 
clavellata is much more common in eastern Vermont than has pre- 
viously been supposed. 

The development of stations for three species of Centaurca on the 
farm of John P. C. Stark, of St. Johnsbury Center, is a most curious 
circumstance. I have carefully investigated this locality, and found 
growing but a few rods apart a large patch each of Centaurea Jacea var. 
lacera, Centaurea nigra var. racliata. Centaurea americana. These 
plants have appeared within two or three years in old grassland that 
has not been reseeded in many years. 

The season of 1920 was the 'best yet" from my point of view. 
Eight hundred three species of local flowering plants and ferns and 23 
of mosses and lichens were shown at the Museum. 


Evaline Darling Morgan 

One day, in the late fall of 191G, while clearing up my garden, I 
overturned an old board and discovered an unknown cocoon fastened 
securely to its underside. Curiosity prompted me to pick it off for 
examination, and in so doing I discovered that the larva not only had 
hollowed out a smooth groove in the board of the shape and size to fit 
the pupa, but had incorporated the shavings, or bits of wood, with its 
silk to form the inner layer of the cocoon. The outside layer was en- 
tirely distinct from the inner, and of an even weave and color, not 
unlike that of many cocoons. 

I was thrilled by the work of this unknown artisan. Gardening 
and all its demands were immediately deserted for the perusal of 
books that might give an answer to my urgent question, "What can- 
it be?" Many hours were spent in search for the answer, but without 
results. Then I wrote to the entomological department of the Univer- 
sity of Vermont, and to several authorities on such matters, but all 
reported "never heard of it." 

That year I had a class of girls who had been studying moths and 
butterflies and making collections of their larvae to be placed in an 
improvised hatchery to await results the following spring, so it was 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 13 

the natural thing for me to put the pupa of this strange cocoon hack 
into its cradle and file it away to await results. 

I found the specimen the last of October, and it was well into the 
following May before the moth emerged. Its rough handling mani- 
fested itself in an imperfect and crumpled object, that was impossible 
to identify with certainty. I must wait and watch as the summer came. 
My class was more enthusiastic in moth culture than the previous year, 
and all specimens were carefully labelled, fed, and finally filed as col- 
lected. One of the labels read thus: "Caterpillar, fuzzy with yellow 
hairs, 2 pairs black pencils front, 1 pair back, about l 1 /* in. long, found 
in garden (traveling), full grown, Aug. 20, 1917." 

It was in its box only a few days before it made its cocoon in one 
corner. The following May it hatched, and although it was not a per- 
fect specimen, I was able to identify it as Acronycta (Apatela) amer- 
icana. the American dagger moth. 

That year a prize was offered by the Hartland Nature Club for the 
best collection of cocoons made by the schools. These collections were 
sent to me for identification, and those specimens that I was uncertain 
of I put in my hatchery, with the result that one of them attached to a 
small decayed branch emerged as an American dagger. Upon exam- 
ination of the cococn, I found the same characteristic present as in my 
unknown one, that the inner portion had been made of the bark and 
some of the wood of the branch. I saw, also, in comparing the crumpled 
specimen with the more perfect one, that the bodies were similar. 

The following year I was fortunate in finding several caterpillars 
like the one my class had labelled. One of these failed to spin a cocoon, and 
conveniently dried in such a way as to add to my series of specimens. 
I carefully watched the remaining ones during their transformation 
and was again thrilled by the magic of these tiny creatures, making 
their grooves in the paper boxes, and deftly incorporating the bits into 
their cocoons. One of them made a cocoon with two distinct coverings, 
probably owing to the softer and coarser quality of the box in which 
it was placed. The other two cleverly kept the appearance of the out- 
door specimen, while really making the two coverings into one. 

In the latter part of May, 1919, a perfect specimen of this dagger 
moth flew to my screen, seemingly for the express purpose of complet- 
ing my series, that should reveal at a glance what had taken me four 
years to discover. I have been unable to find any descriptions that 
reveal the unique and interesting habit that this moth has in making 

14 Joint BULLETIN 7 

its cocoon, and I should like to know whether it has been known and 
recorded bv others. 


E. M m . Kittredge 

During the summer meeting of the Vermont Botanical Club, much 
interest was manifested in an abnormal specimen of Veratrum, which 
was found in a field bordering the old stage road near Plymouth 
Union. The leaves were less pubescent than in the common form, 
and the flowers were yellow. Although much handled, and examined 
in the heat, as well as the light, of a kerosene lamp, the plant showed 
no trace of withering, and remained fresh and beautiful for several 
days. The specimen has been studied by several botanists, and is now 
in the Gray Herbarium pending further information. 

The large-leaved Dock, found near Saltash Mountain, was at first 
thought to be a hybrid between the garden rhubarb and the common 
broad-leaved dock, both species growing abundantly near by, and the 
new plant resembling both in several characters, but it was later 
determined as Rumex alpinns. L., a native of the higher mountains of 
central Europe. It has not before been reported from this country. 

In August, another visit was made to some of the bogs and swamps 
of Plymouth, and several very interesting plants collected and others 
noted for another season. Habenaria blephariglottis was found in one 
open bog, growing in some abundance. My guide, Mrs. B. G. Thomas, 
of Woodstock, has known of the station for several years and has 
jealously guarded the plants fearing their extermination. She re- 
luctantly consented to the report of the station, but bound me not to 
reveal its exact location, a promise I was more than willing to give. 
Photographs were made and three specimens taken. Carex folliculata 
was found in abundance in this bog. 

Three years ago some very beautiful mallows were noticed along 
the road near Bridgewater Corners. Each year the plants were cut 
before mature fruit could be collected, but from the material sent to 
Dr. Ezra Brainerd and others, the plants have been determined as 
hybrids between Malva Alcea and M. moschata. M. Alcea is occasion- 
ally, and M. moschata very frequently, found in the neighborhood, but 
neither species was found in the immediate vicinity of the hybrids. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 15 


Dana 8. Carpenter 

While this tale of a very tame adventure can hardly compare to 
that of "The Three Musketeers," yet we three, J. G. Underwood, Harold 
Rugg, and myself, endured each other's society with great bravery and 
some degree of cheerfulness for a week, more or less, botanizing in 
Essex County, in the month of July. 

It was a camping trip with Mr. Underwood's car as a base, each 
one of us contributing something in the way of equipment and food. A 
tent with sewed sides, buttoned over the top of the car and pegged 
down, made a serviceable shelter, and one which the writer and his 
wife had used on other occasions with profit and pleasure. 

We cooked upon a camper's gas stove, with two burners: Bread, 
bacon, coffee, tinned vegetables, and certain extras from Mr. Under- 
wood's delicatessen gave plenty of variety. 

We slept on folding cots; that is, Messrs. Underwood and Carpenter 
did; Mr. Rugg forgot his cot, and had to rest his bones on the car 
cushions, doubling such bones as would double to fit the cushions, or 
let them dangle at the mercy of black flies and mosquitoes. 

We left Hartland, where we outfitted, on a Monday, at noon, 
driving north along the Connecticut River and into a terrific thunder 
shower at Lyme, witnessing the unusual sight of a tree near the high- 
way being struck by lightning and then bursting into flames. 

The rain fell in torrents, and under Mr. Rugg's direction, we left 
the main highway at Orford and after a hilly drive of six miles or more 
we reached the club house belonging to the Dartmouth Association, one 
of the chain of club houses reaching to the White Mountain region; 
a most comfortable place, with beds, blankets, stove, fuel, cooking 

Next morning we retraced our steps to the main highway, driving 
north through Vermont and New Hampshire to Guildhall, where we 
began to look seriously for roads leading to Maidstone Lake. After 
two or three false clues had led us up unfrequented roads, only to be 
baffled, we reached Bloomfield, a little village perched upon the rocks 
of the Connecticut River. Across the bridge the village blossoms out 
again as North Stratford, N. H. 

Here the Nulhegan River, after its tortuous way through tangled 
bog and dark slash of red, white and black spruce forests, tumbles into 
the Connecticut. At the point of junction, in a little swirl of back 

16 Joint Bllletix 7 

eddy, was our first bush of Salix pellita Anders, Eggleston's station, no 
doubt. On the way home, days later, we traced it many miles south- 
ward. Just how far down the river it has a foothold remains to be 
proved. We were of the opinion that it came from the Connecticut 
lakes far to the north. 

Upon further inquiry in regard to Maidstone Lake, we retraced 
our road for two miles, then opened a gate into a rocky pasture, follow- 
ing a cart road until twilight prompted a search for a camping place 
in an open space in the pasture. 

Not until supper was over did we begin to realize that we were 
doomed to pass a sleepless night from myriads of black flies and mos- 
quitoes which descended upon us. In vain we smeared ourselves with 
pitch, tar and rosin. In vain we covered our heads with blankets. The 
one smoker of tobacco sat on a stone in the close embrace of his com- 
panions, who chose to endure the nausea of smoke to the fiery darts 
of the insects, and only with the coming of the sun did they depart. 

We were soon up and away on foot, leaving the car at this place. 
A half hour's walk brought us to where years ago the stream had been 
dammed across a gorge to furnish power. A tiny meadow and a few 
old log cabins, one still occupied, relieved the loneliness. 

In the mud of the old dam was Alopecurus geniculatus L. var. 
(fristiilatus Torr. We followed an old logging trail which crossed and 
recrossed the brook, for some time, eventually leading up to the shore 
of a lonesome and desolate sheet of water, Maidstone Lake. 

The forest, or such of it as was left after wasteful lumber opera- 
tions had ceased years ago, came nearly to the water's edge or marsh, 
the rude dam, now nearly rotted away, was clogged with the bare 
trunks and branches of trees worn quite smooth by the water, which 
gurgled and eddied beneath. 

We wriggled our way through reeds and willows for some distance, 
finally reaching a little beach with a bit of grass, where we stopped 
long enough to eat a bit of chocolate and catch a nap; then returned 
to the car, all agreeing that it was no place for a summer meeting. 

The afternoon was spent in returning to Bloomfield, en route for 
Island Pond, over an interesting road in sight of many bogs and through 
damp forests of spruce close to the road. 

Sphagnum by the roadside gave us Habernaria obtusata and Micro- 
■sti/los unifiora. We stayed at the Island Pond Hotel, conducted by a 
most estimable couple working under the auspices of the Y. M. C. A. 
It is a big barn of a structure with few conveniences, though the 

Vermont Botaxical and Bird Clubs 17 

manager and his wife were very cordial and helpful, giving us the 
freedom of the big billiard room in which to arrange our plants and 
guiding us the next morning to a most delightful bog where the softest 
of sphagnum blossomed with Pogonia. Calopogon. Arethusa, Buckbean, 
Kalmia. and kindred plants delighted the eye. This would be good 
botanizing but the hotel is a railroad man's sleeping place only. 

The next day we motored nearly all day through to Norton's Mills 
on the Canadian line, and thence to the little hamlet of Wallis Pond, 
which is a record of hill and bog, and timber slash, overgrown more or 
less completely. There are bogs with a center of clear water; mud 
flats with dwarf callas, dotted with the yellow blossoms of utricularias. 
eriophorum, rynchospora, mountain holly, and black spruce. 

We left them all regretfully; they would have to be reached from 
a base at Island Pond, and Island Pond lacked a hotel. 

That night we camped in the yard of a little school-house at Wallis 
Pond, near farm houses and pleasant fields, with the opposite shore 
under the Union Jack, a brisk breeze flapping our tent curtains and 
fish leaping for flies the only sounds. 

The next day we went to Canaan where the Connecticut River 
sheltered some interesting things. I think it was here that we found 
Salix balsamifera, and Evening Primroses flourished as if it were 
always evening, with petals 2 1 4. inches across, where the spray from 
the granite rocks kept them continually moist. 

Distance and lack of hotels are two disagreeable factors to be 
reckoned with in making Bloomfield, Island Pond, Norton's Mills, or 
Canaan, a place for the summer meeting. 

So much for my recollections of a pleasant trip with most agree- 
able companions. 

List of plants taken on Essex County trip, July, 1920, by J. G. 
Underwood, Harold Rugg, and D. S. Carpenter: 

Salix pellita, Anders, Salix lucida Muhl., J uncus filiformis L., 
Juncus marginatus Rostk., Amelanchier laevis Meyer, Polygonum la- 
pathifolium L., Ribes triste Pall. var. albinervium (Michx.) Fernald. 
Spergularia rubra (L.) J. &. C. Presl., Picea mariana (Mill) BSP., Alo- 
pecurus geniculatus L. var. aristulatus Torr., Sisymbrium altissimum 
L., Aster paniculatus Lam., Utricularia intermedia Hayne, Utricularia 
cornuta Michx., Lycopodium inundatum L., Lycopodium tristachyum 
Pursh., Glyceria canadensis (Michx.) Trim, Lonicera caerulea L. var 

18 Joint Bulletin t 

rillosa (Michx.) T. & G., Lobelia Dortmanni L., Eriocaulon septangu- 
lare Withering, Drosera longifolia L., Microstylis uniflora (Michx.) 
BSP., Carex Michauxii Broeckl., Carer leptalea Wahl., Carex pauper- 
cilia Michx. var. pallens Fernald, Carex oligospermia Michx., Carex 
vesicaria L., var. Jejuna Fern., Carex canescens L., var. disjuncta 
Fernald. Rubus setosus Bigel, Veronica Scutellaria L., Radicula palus- 
tris L., Melampyrum lineare L., Vaccinium ritis-idea L., var. minor 
Lodd., Vaccinium canadensis Kalm. 

Geranium muculatum L., Habenaria blephariglottis. Habenaria 
clavellata, Habenaria obtusata Pursh., Habenaria dilatata (Pursh. ) 
Gray, Chimaphila umbellata (L.) Nutt., Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray, 
Xymphaea microphylla Pers., Pyrus melaaocarpa Michx., Andromeda 
glaucophylla Link., Calopogon pulchellus (Sw.) R. Br.. Acer saccharin- 
urn L., Rhamnus alnifolia L'Her., Rynchospora glomerata (L.) Vahl., 
Rynchospora fusca (L.) Ait., Potentilla palustris Scop., Erisphorum 
tencllum Nutt., Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Kerr., Alnus crispa (Ait.) 
Pursh., Apocyanum androsaemifolium L., Luzula campestris (L. ) D. C, 
var. multiffora (Ehrh) Celak, Salix balsamifera Barrett. 


Ezra Brainerd 

The following violets were collected at Tyson, July 1 and 2, 1920: 
Viola renifolia Gray (typical), intergrading with var. Brainerdii 
(Greene) Fernald. 

What is V. misstassiniea Greene. Pitt. 4:5, Jan., 1899? 
A most interesting inquiry. 
V. incognita Brainerd. 
V. Selkirkii Pursh. 
Y. septemtrionalis Brainerd. 


V. conspersa x rostrata. May 23, 1920, growing with both parent 

V. affinis LeConte, fls. white, May 23, 1920. 

V. fimbriatula x conspersa. May 23, 1920, with parent species. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 19 

V. blanda, growing in spring bogs, is quite distinct from V. blanda 
in leaf mould of woodlands. In Tryon, N. C, the species is quite 
glabrous, lacks the characteristic white hairs on the upper surface of 
the leaf. 


Nellie F. Flynn 

Three plants new to the State Flora were found by me growing 
as weeds in the State nursery at Burlington, in June, 1920. They were: 
Jagged chickweed, Holosteum umbellatum; whitlow grass, Draba 
verna; and mouseear cress, Sisymbrium Thalianum. 

In October, I found the pretty spurge, Euphorbia peplus, growing 
as a weed in gardens and by roadsides in Vergennes. It was, I then 
supposed, the fourth station in the State, but I have since run across 
a letter from the late Cyrus G. Pringle to Prof. L. R. Jones, written in 
the nineties, saying he found the plant in Vergennes in 1873, and 
probably again at Charlotte, at Horsford's garden, so it must be the 
sixth station, and is rather a persistent weed. 

H. C. Ridlon, in his paper, "A Season's Botanizing in Bennington," 
speaks of finding Sedum ternatum and of it not being in the Flora of 
Vermont. It is not the first station, as Mrs. W. E. Mack, of West 
Woodstock, has known of a station for it for many years, which should 
have gone into the Flora, and there is a station for it at Rock Point, in 

Mrs. L. Frances Jolley found horsemint, Monarda punctata, grow- 
ing in Highgate the past summer. This is the sixth station in the 


H. C. Ridlon 

It was in the month of May, 1920, that I came to Bennington to 
live, and began seeking, in what to me were new fields, for Nature's 
plant treasures. Previously all my botanizing had principally been 
done in Windsor and Rutland counties, so I hailed with delight this 
opportunity to find and know the plants which are not often found 
far from Vermont's western border. 

20 Joint Bi li.ktin 7 

I did not expect to disc-over plants new to the State, but to become 
acquainted with many already known to those whose pleasure it had 
been to botanize in this section. One of the first flowers to greet me 
was the large, white trillium. T. granriiflorum. which bloomed in 
abundance in many a rich woodland. This trillium I had once col- 
lected in Indiana, but the western specimens were never as large as 
the giant blooms found at Bennington. 

The painted trillium, T. undulation, was entirely absent, and the 
purple species. T. erect inn. was found only infrequently. Other early 
springtime flowers were the same as those collected elsewhere. 

The latter part of May the purple clematis, C. vertieillaris. flaunted 
its showy purple flowers in a few rocky, wooded places. The wild 
geranium, G. maculatum. grew abundantly, and in varied habitats, 
from open mountain slopes to lowland roadsides. 

Creeping buttercup, R. re pens var. glabratus. was discovered in a 
muddy section of a field, where its mass of creeping plants with flowers 
of a deep golden hue covered a small area. My next find was one of 
the orpine family, Serium ternatum, which grew in scattered groups in 
a thin, rocky woodland, of a low altitude. This, I believe, is the first 
time this sedum has been reported from Vermont. 

Of the many galiums collected, the least common, and the prettiest 
of the group, were: G. verum. with a mass of delicate yellow bloom: 
and G. Mollugo. with its equally dainty white flowers. 

Another plant which, according to the Vermont Flora, was once 
collected at Charlotte, by the late Dr. Cyrus G. Pringle, is a member of 
the teasel family, Knautia anensis. This plant is well established in 
fields at the Everett farm, and sparingly elsewhere. It is a thrifty 
grower, and from an aesthetic standpoint, highly decorative, but it 
fruits abundantly, and as its blooming period is from early June to 
time of killing frosts, it bids fair to become a menace to agriculture. 

In two old fields, and along an adjacent roadside, the yellow 
rattle, Rhinanthus CristagaUi. grew in abundance. In consulting the 
Vermont Flora, I found that this interesting little plant had been 
previously reported from Bennington by Mrs. Terry, so doubtless the 
station is the same as she discovered. 

In thin fields and pasture lands the deptford pink, D. armeria. 
frequently occurred. Of the orchis group none were often met with, 
but Spiranthes lucida "cropped up" rather frequently, both in moist 
fields and along gravelly banks. Members of the mint family were 
abundant, and my list of those less common elsewhere in the State 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 21 

includes: Monarda mollis, rather common here; Blephilia ciliata, fre- 
quent; and wild marjoram, Origanum vulgare. very common. 

Along the banks of the Walloomsac River, in certain places, the 
tall meadow rue, Thalictrum polygonum, grew to a rank size, and 
several plants were found bearing purplish colored flowers. Along the 
same river bank, the rather rare woodbine, Psedera quinquefolia var. 
hirsuta, was found. 

A colony of the spiked loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria, brightened 
a small swamp with its tall stalks of purple bloom. Several specimens 
of the forked catchfly, Silene dichotoma. were collected in a newly seed- 
ed field near Bennington village. 

Of the composite group, very interesting were the little heath 
asters, A. ericoides, and the almost rayless form of the daisy flebane, 
known as E. ramosus var. discoideus. The latter was frequent, growing 
with the type, but I find no previous mention of it in any Vermont list. 

A list of ferns collected include three which I will mention as 
being rather uncommon: Goldie's shield, A. Goldianum ; narrow-leaved 
spleenwort, A. angustifolium ; and the broad beech fern, P. hexagon- 
opt era. 

The coming season, seeking with a renewed interest, I hope to add 
to the list of plants found in Vermont. 


George L. Kirk 

It had been the writer's desire, for many years, to see the nest 
of a mourning warbler. Although I had heard the birds singing on the 
breeding grounds in Vermont many times during a period of 20 years, 
it had always been in a wide tract of maple sprouts in the mountains, 
where hunting was an almost hopeless task. On July 29, 1919, while 
berrying, I heard a mourning warbler sing near some blackberry 
bushes in a small clearing, at the foot of East Mountain, which borders 
Rutland Valley on the east. Not knowing whether it was an early 
migrant or a bird that was singing late on the breeding grounds, I 
determined to search the place the following season. 

June 6, 1920, found me on the spot. It was a cold, rainy day, very 
unfavorable for bird song, but luck favored me, and I heard a mourning 
warbler singing as I neared the place. Instead of being near the 

22 Joint Bulletin 7 

blackberry patch it was in the top of a 40-foot elm tree at the foot of 
of a ledge 300 feet lower down the mountain. The cliff did not look like 
a good nesting spot, but I decided to search it a little, and I had hardly 
commenced before I found a bulky nest, that looked new to me, under 
a low growing branch of purple flowering raspberry (Rubus odoratus). 
The nest had not yet been lined. There was no female bird in sight. 
The male moved to a tree a hundred yards away and sang, apparently 

My next visit was on June 10, and the nest was finished and con- 
tained four eggs. The bird had completed it and laid the four eggs in 
foin- days. 

Again, there was no female bird in sight, and, not being positive 
of the species to which the nest belonged, I paid it another visit on the 
14th. It then contained five eggs, and the female mourning warbler 
was incubating. 

This nest was well hidden by the large leaves of the raspberry, and 
it was supported by slender branches of the bush. The bottom of the 
nest was only nine inches from the ground. It was much different 
from the nest of a chestnut-sided warbler and Maryland yellow-throat, 
which build in somewhat similar situations, the loosely woven grass of 
the outside reminding one somewhat of a song sparrow's nest, al- 
though, of course, the size was smaller. The nest was well cupped and 
was lined with dark colored rootlets and black hairs. There were a 
few dead leaves loosely woven into the bottom of the structure, as in 
the case of a Maryland's nest. 


Inez Addie Hoive 

During the severe weather of January and February, 1920. pine 
and evening grosbeaks were very common in St. Johnsbury. From 
April 8 to 12 a pair of fox sparrows fed at my food shelves, even going 
into an open shed for grain and crumbs. Winter wrens nested in St. 
Johnsbury last season. 

I saw but one ruffed grouse with brood last season, and that was 
on July 14. Surely there is need of an endless closed season on ruffed 
grouse if we would preserve the species in Vermont. 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 23 

The following list of birds were seen at Neals Lake, in Lunenburg, 
on September 6: Three spotted sandpipers, one red-eyed vireo, one 
blue-headed vireo, three yellow-throated vireos, two black-throated green 
warblers, four Cape May warblers, six pine warblers, one myrtle warb- 
ler, one Nashville warbler, two worm-eating warblers, one yellow 
warbler, one redstart, two black-throated blue warblers, and one Cana- 
dian warbler. 

One crested flycatcher, on September 21, was my latest date ever 
recorded for that species. 

Crows have been common in St. Johnsbury all winter, but pine 
siskins and snow buntings are the only winter visitants noted up to 
January 25, 1921. 


Helen Eastman and Wendell P. Smith 

The following plants are not listed in the Vermont Flora as being 
found in this region: 

Botrychium lanceolatum. Botrychium ternatum rutaefolium, On- 
oclea sensibilis obtusilobata, Lycopodium selago, Aristida dichotoma, 
Hordeum jubatum, Carex foenea, Allium Schoenoprasum, Uvularia 
perfoliata, Calypso borealis, Corallorhiza odontorhiza, Habenaria 
blephariglottis, Habenaria dilatata var. media, Habenaria Macrophylla, 
Carya porcina. Moms rubra. Lychnis alba, Spergularia rubra. Ranun- 
culus abortivus var. eucyclus. Bevieroa incana, Cardamine rhomboidea, 
Lepidium campestre, Nasturtium officinale. Sisymbrium altissimum. 

Potentilla recta. Astragalus alpinus. Trifolium incarnatum, Tri- 
folium medium, Astragalus Canadensis. Oxalis stricta, Acer saccharum 
var. nigrum, Chimaphila maculata, Pyrola rotundifolia var. uliginosa, 
Pyrola secunda var. pumila, Vaccinium Vitis-Idaea var. minus, Convol- 
vulus sepium var. Americanus, Blephilia ciliata, Lamium maculatum. 
Dead Nettle, Physostegia Virginiana, Stachys palustris, Thymus ser- 
pyllum, Datura tatula. Physalis pruinosa, Physalis Virginiana, Veronica 
chamaedrys, Littorella lacustris. Plantago aristata. Lonicera tatarica. 
Aster Nova-Angliae var. I'oseus. Aster Novi-Belgii. Aster penicillatus 
var. bellidlflorus. Cnicus pumilus. Lactuca integrifolia. Petasites 

LM Joint Bulletin 7 


E. M. Kittredge 

Owing to my late arrival in Woodstock, much of the work planned 
during 1919 for 1920 was necessarily postponed to 1921. However, the 
few weeks of my stay were richly rewarded, especially in the discovery 
of plants which had vainly been sought during the three previous years. 
For instance, Dirca pahtstris had eluded all my efforts and I had given 
up expecting to find it within the prescribed area, when late in August, 
numbers of bushes were found on a wooded hillside, where grew also 
other moisture loving plants, so I think there must be springs on the 
upper reaches. Although five Viburnums grow so plentifully in my 
area as to deserve the description "common," V. dent at um was not seen 
until the last of my stay, when, hurrying down a pasture hillside to 
escape a shower, I was attracted by the glow of color in a clump of 
bushes near the fence, and investigation revealed a thorn-apple not in 
the collection, and the long-sought Arrow-wood. 

Each season, of course, reveals plants new to Miss Billings' col- 
lection, but not in proper condition at the time of discovery to make 
good specimens, hence, merely a note can be made of their existence 
and location, and the hope that the next year will afford opportunity to 
collect at just the right time. This year I am looking forward to seeing 
Arethusa at home in a tiny bog located back in the hills, but fortunately 
well within my territory. Mrs. Mack told me of her station for Sedum 
ternatum late in 1919 — too late for me to look for it. Last year we did 
visit the station, but so late in the summer we found only empty pods 
and old leaves, therefore, we still have a pleasant trip to make at 
flowering time. That same day we visited her station for skunk cab- 
bage, and collected leaves and fruit. 

There is much pleasure in the discovery of every plant, no matter 
how common it may be considered, if it is not in the collection, but I 
confess to an added satisfaction when the plant is considered rare in 
the State, and only a few stations are given in the Flora. A full list of 
the new and rare plants collected last season is appended, but a few 
deserve special mention. The pale variety of the large coral-root was 
brought to Miss Billings in June from a nearby swampy woods. The typi- 
cal form is fairly common around Woodstock, but is not found until late 
in July and well into August. Miss Billings collected the centaury on 
the golf grounds the last week in July, when only three flowers were 
expanded. A later visit to the station was not possible last summer, 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 2! 2 s 

but other specimens will be eagerly sought this season. The young 
trees and seedlings of Picea alba were found in various situations, but 
always near large plantations of the spruce. We thought some of the 
little trees must be five or more years old. 

Most of these new and rare plants were determined at the New 
York Botanical Garden, and regarding Achillea setacea. Dr. Pannell 
wrote that it had been reported but twice before in this country. 

Specimens of several of these new plants have been deposited in 
the State Herbarium. The others may be found in Miss Billings' 
herbarium if necessary. 

Aspiclium pittsf or dense. A. cristatum x Filix-mas. A. Goldianum x 
marginale, Botrychium, lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum, B. terna- 
tum var. mtaefolium. Lycopodium complanatum. L. lucidulum var. 
porophilinn, Selaginella apus. Picea alba. Potamogeton foliosus. 
P. Oakesianus. Bromus altissimus, B. purgans var. glabrescens. Ely m us 
riparius, Muhlenbergia foliosa. Panicum philadelphicum. Zizania aqua- 
tica. Carex tricocharpa. Scirpus georgeanus. proliferous form, £. rubro- 
tinctus var. confertus. Stenophyllus capillaris. Convallaria maialis. 
Corallorrhiza maculata var. flavida. Epipactis decipiens. Habenaria 
lacera x psycodes. not Andreicsii. Rumex altissimus. R. crispus x obtusi- 
folius. Lychnis coronaria. Silene Armeria. Actea alba x rubra, white 
fruits, Lepidium campestre. Amelanchier canadensis x laevis. A. san- 
guinea. Pyrus Aucuparia. Rosa Lyoni. R. tomentosa. Centaurium nm- 
bellatum, Asclepias purpurascens. Salvia officinalis. Linaria canadensis. 
Galium Mollugo. Houstonia coerulea var. Faxonorum. Achillea setacea. 
Aster novae-angliae var. roseus. Helianthus strumosus. Hieracium 


George L. Kirk 

There is more than ordinary interest in searching for the nests of 
one of the shyest of our birds in a place where man seldom goes for a 
similar purpose, and thus it was with great expectations that Duane E. 
Kent, of Rutland, and the writer, set out soon after daylight on June 27, 
1920, to examine the stunted spruces and balsams on the cone of 
Mount Killington, after having spent a night in one of the Green 
Mountain Company's shacks. The avian fauna at this elevation, 
3,700 to 4,100 feet, is limited, in the Green Mountains, being restricted 

26 Joint Bulletin 7 

largely to Bicknell's and olive-backed thrushes, juncoes, myrtle, black- 
jioll and Nashville warblers, chickadees, white-throated sparrows, 
and brown creepers. It was the first named birds that we were 
chiefly interested in, so we went at once to the dark evergreen thickets, 
where we frequently heard the call and, less often, the peculiar song 
of the Bicknell's coming out of the fog. 

Half a day's search was rewarded with the finding of five occupied 
nests and one deserted one, containing addled eggs. The contents of 
these nests ranged from one fresh egg to a full set of four that had been 
incubated about a week, showing considerable variation in the nesting 
habits of different pairs of birds on the same site. With the exception 
of one nest, which was in greatly stunted spruces on a ledge and only 
three feet from the ground, the homes of these thrushes were seven to 
nine feet from the ground. Each occupied a similar position in the 
peak of a small evergreen. 

The similarity of the nests, with one exception, was striking. They 
were compactly built, which gave them the appearance of being smaller 
than the other thrushes, and the lining of black rootlets in one was just 
like any of the others. The body of the nest was made up of grasses 
and fine twigs, but in each instance these were covered over on the out- 
side with a moss, Hypnum shreheri, although many other kinds of 
mosses grew abundantly about. 

The one nest which varied greatly from the others resembled those 
of the olive-backed thrush in that it was more grassy on the outside 
and more loosely constructed than those of the Bicknell's thrushes. 
The eggs, too, in the spotting, were nearer to Swainsoni than Bicknelli, 
and the background was lighter, as in the olive-back's eggs. The bird 
was collected to make sure of the identification. 

Another interesting nest, which was found on this trip, was one of 
a blackpoll warbler, which was out on the end of a limb, five and a half 
feet from the trunk of a tree, instead of being near the bole, as is usual. 
This was in a large tree, the blackpoll generally selecting small ones 
at this place. 

A white-throated sparrow nesting at 3,700 feet altitude, and a 
slate colored junco with a set of five eggs instead of the almost invari- 
able four, were other interesting discoveries of the day on Vermont's 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 27 


Aspidium Fragrans on Mount Horrid 

"Toward the latter part of the season of 1921," whites D. Lewis 
Dutton, of Brandon, "I made a trip to Mount Horrid, in Rochester, 
collecting lichens. I had a rather successful day, gathering some 26 or 
28 different species, and, thinking it time to leave the ledges, started 
over them directly toward the road, instead of taking the shorter cut 
to the east, as I had usually done. Among the broken rocks, I dis- 
covered what I at first took to be Woodsia ilvensis, growing on a per- 
pendicular south-exposed rock. I took along a bit of it, wondering why 
it had not lost its old fronds of the year before. When I compared it 
with herbarium material, I discovered that what I had was not woodsia, 
but a small form of Aspidium fragrans. The fronds were about three 
inches long. As yet I have no idea about the quantity that may be 
found on Mount Horrid. With the exception of the Hubbardton sta- 
tion, it is the most southerly in the State." 

Hartland Nature Club Work 

The work of the Hartland Nature Club, which was largely sus- 
pended during the World War, has been resumed, Miss Nancy Darling, 
of Woodstock, reports, with Miss Elizabeth Billings, of Woodstock, as 
president, and the special topic for study being mosses. An interesting 
program has been prepared for 1921. 

Rumex Alpinus L. in This Country 

This European dock, which resembles in its leaves the familiar 
rhubarb of the gardens, was found, for the first time in this country, 
in the town of Plymouth, by Mrs. W. E. Mack, Mrs. H. E. Haselton, 
and Miss E. M. Kittredge, during the annual summer meeting of the 
Vermont Botanical Club, held at Tyson, July 1 to 3, 1920. The first 
plants discovered were in the near vicinity of an old house, but later 
the collectors found plants following a small brook through the field, 
and at a still later visit discovered the plants in other fields, always near 
the brook or in swampy situations. Several young plants were taken 
and sent to various gardens, where their growth will be watched with 
much interest. The plant is a native of the high mountains of Europe. 

28 Joint Bullstih 7 

Note on Mourning Warbler 

On the morning of May 15. 1920. Mrs. Evaline Darling Morgan 
observed a female mourning warbler at Woodstock. It was feeding 
close to the ground, and was so intent upon getting its breakfast 
that she was able to get close to it to notice its distinctly blue-gray 
head, brilliant yellow underparts. and absence of wing bars. The spot 
where she observed this rare bird for Woodstock was near a deep 
water hole that is surrounded by willows and other small growth, and 
it lies at the bottom of a heavily wooded range. Nothing could be more 
remote and secluded. On the following morning, she again visited the 
spot where she found the female, and in the near-by willows, discovered 
its mate, with its mottled throat. It was very much shyer, and paused 
often in its feeding to sit perfectly still. Neither uttered a note. The 
next morning they were both gone. 

Birds Stayed Late in 1920 

Because of the unusually mild weather in the fall of 1920, many 
birds remained in Vermont far beyond their usual time for migrating 
southward. Some very interesting records were: Chimney swifts at 
Rutland, October 4: barn and cliff swallows at North Ferrisburgh. 
October 3. Two juncoes spent the entire winter of 1920-21 in a patch of 
spruces near Rutland. The wintering of this bird in Central Vermont 
is very rare. Their companions included many white-winged cross- 
bills, and a dozen or more golden-crowned kinglets, showing that the 
kinglets, which seemed uncommon for several seasons, are "coming 
back.'— G. L. Kirk. 

One Financial Account for Clubs 

Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn. secretary-treasurer of the Botanical and 
Bird Clubs, recommends that the Clubs become to all intents and 
purposes one club, with one financial account: that the constitutions be 
revised to that effect: and that the annual dues be raised to $1. This 
may be considered at the next meeting. 

Bulletins Wanted 

Copies of Bird Club Bulletins Nos. 2. 6. 7, and S are wanted by 
Harry C. Oberholzer. of the Biological Survey. United States Depart- 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 29 

merit of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. A reasonable price, up to 50 
cents a number, will be paid for them by him. 

Nature Book List Wanted 

Mrs. A. B. Morgan, of Woodstock, would like a list of the newest 
and best books for nature students published in the Bulletin, and 
also something about the insect pests of Vermont. Mrs. Anne T. 
Angell, of Brattleboro, would like to see a list of publications by the 
State, or by Departments at Washington, that would be of especial 
interest to Club members. Another suggestion comes from Miss Eliza- 
beth Billings, of Woodstock, who would like a comparison of the 
floras of eastern and western Vermont published in the Bulletin. 
Mrs. H. H. Blanchard, of Springfield, asks for information about 
Vermont mushrooms and shells. 

New Hepatic for State 

Miss Annie Lorenz, of Hartford, Conn., reports that one new 
hepatic has been found for the State, making the Vermont list 130. 
It is Fossombronia foveolata Lindb. It was collected by her at Grand 
Isle, in August, 1919. 

Pink Pond Lilies Found 

A pink form of the pond lily, Castalia odorata, was found in a pond 
of rather high elevation, near Newbury, Mrs. Nellie F. Flynn reports. 
Mrs. Flynn would like to hear from any person who has ever seen pink 
tinged lilies of this type in Vermont. 

Shall We Consolidate Meetings? 

It has been suggested that on account of the slim attendance 
lately at the winter meetings, due to cold weather and the expense of 
travel, the summer and winter meetings be combined in one large 
summer meeting, using the evenings for the reading and discussion 
of papers. This will probably be taken up at the next meeting. 

Hawk Owl in Rutland 

A hawk owl was observed in Rutland, on November 27, 1920, by 
G. L. Kirk, the bird remaining about nearly a week, or until a consid- 
erable fall of snow caused it to change its feeding ground. It was seen 
daily, as darkness was falling, flying over the meadowlands, close to 
the ground, having much the appearance of a marsh hawk. 

30 • Joint Bulletin 7 


Botanical Club 

Section 1. This shall be known as the Vermont Botanical Club. 

Section 2. The object of the association is to promote friendly 
intercourse among the students of botany in Vermont, and to secure 
a more thorough knowledge of the flora of the State. 

Section 3. The officers of the Club shall be a president, vice-presi- 
dent, secretary-treasurer, editor, and librarian, and three additional 
members who are to act with the other officers as an executive com- 
mittee. These officers are to be elected annually at the winter meeting. 

Section 4. Each year there shall be two regular meetings of the 
Club, one in January, and one in July, at such places as may be desig- 
nated by the Club or its officers. 

Section 5. Any student of botany, whose name is proposed by 
two members of the Club, may be elected a member by a vote of the 
Club at any regular meeting. 

Section 6. An annual fee of fifty cents shall be paid by each mem- 
ber. This shall be due at the time of the annual winter meeting. The 
money thus received may be used by the officers to meet the current 
expenses of the Club, and for such other purposes as the Club may 

Section 7. Any member may, in lieu of annual fees, pay a single 
life membership fee of ten dollars. Unless otherwise instructed by 
special vote of the Club, the treasurer shall reserve and invest all such 
life membership fees as a permanent fund of which the interest shall 
be available for annual expenses. The treasurer is further authorized 
to receive and add to such permanent fund any special contributions 
made for such purpose. In case any single special contribution amounts 
to twenty-five dollars or more, the contributor shall be designated a 
patron, and shall, as such, be entitled to all the privileges of regular life 

Section 8. This constitution may be amended by a two-thirds vote 
at any regular meeting, provided the amendment has been proposed at 
a previous meeting. 

Bird Club 

Section 1. This organization shall be called the Vermont Bird 

Section 2. The objects of this Club shall be: To afford a con- 
venient means of communication between those persons in the State 

Vermont Botanical and Bird Clubs 31 


who are interested in the study of birds; to collect and preserve in- 
formation concerning those species found in the State; to create and 
encourage an interest in birds; to promote scientific investigation; and 
to procure protection to useful birds. 

Section 3. The officers of the Club shall be a president, vice-presi- 
dent, secretary-treasurer, auditor, and an executive committee, consist- 
ing of five members. The officers shall be elected annually. 

Section 4. Any person willing to aid in the objects named in 
Section 2 is eligible to membership, and may be elected at any regularly 
called meeting by vote of a majority of members. 

Section 5. The annual dues shall be 50 cents. 

Section 6. Meetings may be called by the officers at such time 
and place as may, to them, seem best. 

Section 7. This constitution may be amended by a majority vote 
of members present at any regular meeting, providing notice thereof 
has been given at least one month in advance. 


Botanical Club 

Miss Lois Burt Enosburg Falls, Vt. 

Herbert N. Button The Tavern, Grafton, Vt. 

Mrs. Lewis H. Flint 292 Pearl Street, Burlington, Vt. 

Alfred H. Gilbert 238 College Street, Burlington, Vt. 

Mrs. Alfred H. Gilbert 238 College Street, Burlington, Vt. 

Miss Fannie L. Hall Grafton, Vt. 

Miss Lydia Hiller State School, Vergennes, Vt. 

Homer D. House State Botanical Museum, Albany, N. Y. 

Mrs. Jessie Louise Jacobs 146 Williams Street, Burlington, Vt. 

Mrs. U. V. Mace 39 Nichols Street, Rutland, Vt. 

C. J. Newell Alstead, N. H. 

Miss Carolyn Nye. 454 South Union Street, Burlington, Vt. 

G. C. Shedd Framingham, Mass. 


Vernon A. Bullard 183 College Street, Burlington, Vt. 

Dr. C. A. Cheever Main Street, Hingham, Mass. 

Joint Bulletin 7 


Miss Anne T. Angell McVeigh Farm, Brattleboro, Vt. 

Stewart H. Burnham 

Department of Botany, College of Agriculture, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Lewis H. Flint 292 Pearl Street, Burlington, Vt. 

Fred G. Floyd 69 Perham Street, West Roxbury, Mass. 

Mrs. James Hartness 30 Orchard Street, Springfield, Vt. 

Miss Elsie M. Kittredge Proctor, Vt. 

Miss Addie L. Reed R. F. D. No. 1. Brattleboro, Vt. 

Harry C. Ridlon Green Mountain School. Bennington, Vt. 

Miss Estelle Smith 15 Loomis Street, Burlington, Vt. 

Miss Phoebe M. Towle 323 Pearl Street, Burlington, Vt. 

Dr. W. Godfrey Watt Vergennes. Vt. 

G. Phineas W. Whiting 

St. Stephen's School. Annandale-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Bird Club 


T. Gilbert Pearson 1974 Broadway, New York City 

Edward Howe Forbush 136 State House, Boston, Mass. 


George E. L. Badlam 92 Center Street, Rutland, Vt. 

Mrs. George E. L. Badlam 92 Center Street, Rutland, Vt. 

Mrs. Ruth Butterfield North Montpelier, Vt. 

Mrs. Olin D. Gay Cavendish, Vt. 

Miss Lydia Heller State School, Vergennes, Vt. 

Mrs. U. V. Mace 39 Nichols Street, Rutland, Vt. 

Miss Eva Meigs Vergennes, Vt. 

Mrs. Fred V. Perkins Cavendish, Vt. 

Mrs. Ina B. Pray North Montpelier, Vt. 

Dr. Vance W. Waterman Vergennes, Vt. 

Mrs. Vance W. Waterman Vergennes, Vt. 


Walter Carroll Lowe 35 Fifth Avenue, New York City 

Mrs. Walter Carroll Lowe 35 Fifth Avenue, New York City 

Harry C. Ridlon Green Mountain School, Bennington, Vt. 

Mrs. Julia Hollister Spaulding North Montpelier, Vt. 

Mrs. Mason Towle 323 Pearl Street, Burlington, Vt. 

F. C. Wright Roxbury, Vt. 

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